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2018-06-06 23:56:39 来源:湖北文都

  常用的否定词有not, no, never, none, nothing, nobody, nowhere, neither, nor, hardly, seldom, scarcely, barely, rarely, little, few等,否定词置于句首时,句子要倒装,但否定的名词词组或代词作主语放在句首时,则不需要倒装。
  例句: Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West. (选自1998年Text 4)
  分析: 该句是简单句,nowhere置于句首引起倒装。原句为:1980 Census statistics dramatize the American search for spacious living in nowhere more than the Far West.
  译文: 1980年人口普查的统计数字淋漓尽致地表明,没有哪个地方比美国西部更能凸显美国人想找寻更广阔的生存空间。
  例句: Not everyone agrees on the numbers of Americans who are homeless.
  (选自2006年Use of English)
  分析: 该句是复合句,who are homeless是修饰Americans的定语从句。
  译文: 人们对美国无家可归者的人数并不能达成共识。
  例句: Not all that shift can be attributed to the movement out of the snowbelt, census officials says.(选自1998年Text 4)
  分析: 该句是简单句。
  译文: 人口普查官员说,并不是所有的迁移都是因为人们想搬出寒带地区。
  在否定句中用表示全部否定的词,如never, neither, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere是对事实的全部否定。
  例句: Help will come from the UN, but the aid will be nowhere near what is needed.
  分析: 该句是并列复合句,but前是一简单句。
  译文: 联合国将提供帮助,但这一帮助距所需要的数额还相差很远。
  例句: Writing for the National Immigration Forum, Gregory Rodriguez reports that todays immigration is neither at unprecedented level nor resistant to assimilation.
  (选自2006年Text 1)
  分析: 该句是复合句,分词短语writing for...在句中作状语表示时间,相当于when he writes for...。
  译文: 罗得里格斯在写给国家移民论坛的一篇文章中提到,今天的移民既不像以前那样大规模的涌入,也不会拒绝融合。
  否定词not与表示全部概念的词如all, both, everybody, everything连用,不否定全句,而是否定句中某一部分,表示“不全是”、“不都是”、“并非”,也可与always, many, much, often连用。
  例句: Yet not all of these races are intellectually inferior to the European races, and some may even have freshness and vitality that can renew the energies of more advanced race. (1998年第17题)
  分析: 该句是复合句,that can renew...是一个修饰freshness and vitality的定语从句。
  译文: 但是,在智力方面这些种族并不一定低于欧洲种族,而且有一些使较先进的种族恢复能量的清新力量与活力。
  例句: It is not always easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history.
  分析: 该句是简单句,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to talk about the role of...。
  译文: 谈论大众媒体在欧洲历史上这个具有非凡意义的阶段所发挥的作用并不总是一件易事。
  例句: Not everyone experiences the kinds of severe chronic stresses Adeline Alvarez describes. (选自2008年Text 1)
  分析: 该句是复合句,其中Adeline Alvarez describes是一个修饰stresses的定语从句。
  译文: 并不是人人都经历过阿尔瓦雷斯女士所描述的那种长期的高压。
  在主从复合句中,否定词形式上否定主句谓语,其实否定从句谓语,在动词believe, think, suppose, expect, assume, feel, guess, imagine等前加not是否定其所引导从句的谓语。
  例句: I dont think it advisable that he(should) be assigned to the job since he has no experience whatsoever.
  分析: 该句是复合句,it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是that he(should) be assigned to the job。
  译文: 我认为派他做这项工作不明智,因为他没有任何经验。
  例句: I dont suppose that anyone will object to my leaving for Beijing.
  分析: 该句是复合句,that后是suppose的宾语从句。
  译文: 我认为没人会反对我去北京。
  例句 : The problem is very difficult and obscure: healthcare costs have not been, arent, and wont continue to increase faster than government revenues.
  分析: 该句是并列句。
  译文: 问题晦涩难懂,那就是在过去、现在和将来健康福利的支出都不会比政府税收增加得快。
  例句: ——Mothers and fathers can do a lot to ensure a safe landing in early adulthood for their kids.
  ——I hope not. (选自2007年Part C)
  分析: 上一分句为简单句,下一分句为省略相同成分的简单句。
  译文: ——父母可以为他们的孩子做许多事情来保障他们在步入成年前有一个安全的环境。
  例句: Young scientists cannot realize too soon that existing scientific knowledge is not nearly so complete, certain and unalterable as many textbooks seem to imply.
  分析: 该句为复合句,其中cant be too后接形容词意为“越……越好,再……也不过分”,本句中cannot realize too soon同为此结构,另外not nearly意为“远不”。
  译文: 年轻科学家应尽快认识到现有的科学知识远不像许多教科书中所描述的那样全面,那样肯定,那样一成不变。
  例句: Copernicus showed that—far from being the center of the universe, about which the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and the stars revolved in clockwise homage—the Earth is just one of many small worlds.
  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分为Copernicus showed that the Earth is just one of many small worlds,形容词短语far from being...是宾语从句的主语the Earth的补足语,说明主语情况;定语从句about which...修饰the center of the universe。
  译文: 哥白尼证明地球根本不是太阳、月亮及其他行星和星球按顺时针方向绕其转动的宇宙中心,它只不过是许多小小世界当中的一个而已。
  例句: The expression in his eyes was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the sentiments she had been prepared for.
  分析: 该句是复合句,其中定语从句she had been prepared for修饰the sentiments。
  译文: 他的表情既不是愤怒,也不是惊讶,又不是不满,更不是厌恶,不是她所预料的任何一种表情。
  (一)much less/still less/even less用于否定句
  例句: Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed  surroundings over prolonged small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner, or around on the golf course while they develop a sense of trust and rapport.
  分析: 该句包含while引导的并列句,其中much less置于句首引起倒装。
  译文: 一般情况下,美国人不会在这种轻松的环境中通过长时间的闲聊来评价他们的来访者,更不通过把来访者带到外面吃饭或去高尔夫球场来建立信任和融洽的关系。
  (二)much more/still more/even more用于肯定句
  例句: He could solve much more difficult questions, still more simple ones.
  分析: 该句是简单句。
  译文: 他连再难的问题都能解决,更别说这些简单问题了。
  例句: We are ready to give our lives for our motherland, much more to suffer some hardships.
  分析: 该句是简单句。
  译文: 为了祖国我们随时贡献我们的生命,更不必说吃点苦了。
  (三)let alone适用于肯定句或否定句
  例句: For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. (1997年第38题)
  分析: 该句是简单句,介词短语for the new...在句中作状语表目的。
  译文: 一个新兴国家要生存,就必须制定新的经济政策,更不用说如何使一个国家的人民享受繁荣了。
  例句: Countless divorced politicians would have been elected out of office years ago had they even thought of a divorce, let alone gotten one. (2000年第10题)
  分析: 该句为复合句,其中had they even thought of a divorce是省略if的倒装句,整句是表示与过去事实相反假设的虚拟语气。
  译文: 几年前,政客们只要是有离婚的念头,就会在竞选中失败,更不用说真的离婚了。
  例句: While few craftsmen or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed, it is obvious that their views were less fully intellectualized. (选自2009年Text 4)
  分析: 该句是复合句,句子主干是it is obvious that..., 其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是that从句,while引导一个让步状语从句, let alone dependents and servants作插入语,to be analyzed作literary compositions的后置定语。
  译文: 尽管很少数的手工艺者或农民(更不用说家属和仆人)留下文学作品供我们分析研究,但是很明显他们的观点并不完全具有学术性。
  例句: There exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas.(选自2005年Text 4)
  分析: 该句是复合句,that cannot convey complex ideas是修饰language or dialect的定语从句。
  译文: 世界上没有表达不了复杂思想的语言和方言。
  例句: It was not for nothing that I discussed the matter with Mr. Liu for two hours.
  分析: 该句为复合句。
  译文: 我与刘先生就此事讨论了两个小时,并不是毫无结果。

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